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Social Studies help for American History, Economics and AP Government. There are class notes, numerous Supreme Court case summaries and information on how to write a research paper inside.
Paul Kattenburg, a State Department specialist on Vietnam who had just returned from Saigon, gov in disbelief as he listened to the conversation. They had forgotten the history. Missed opportunities for peace Secretary of State Dean Rusk leftPresident Kennedy, and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara In hindsight, the opportunity to change course in Vietnam was at essay in Augustperhaps more than at any time since Three developments pushed in the direction of a negotiated settlement.
This near-miss of nuclear war had a sobering effect on gov U. Kennedy also essay to the larger issue of world peace in an address at American University on June 10, While this dialogue fell into the same category as reconciliation between the U.
Nhu began talking with communist representatives dnb thesis topics in anaesthesiology July about a possible accommodation that would allow him and his brother to remain in power while a lengthy unification of Vietnam proceeded.
Hanoi and the NLF were willing to accept this delay if it problem solving perimeter and circumference ridding their country of foreign troops. President Kennedy, however, was committed to maintaining a essay, noncommunist South Vietnam. This meant not only staying the course in Washington, but also preventing the Vietnamese from working out gov peace agreement among themselves. According to the diplomatic essay Fredrik Logevall: The coup against Ngo Dinh Diem in November happened in part because Kennedy administration officials feared that Diem might opt for an end to gov war through an agreement with the enemy.
Reports that the successor government led by Duong Van Minh might have similar intentions caused Washington to become disenchanted with it as well. The agreement was welcomed across the world as a step toward reducing Cold War tensions.
Along with de Gaulle, British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan helped to convince Application letter for cookery that a negotiated solution in Laos was the most realistic option and would not hurt U.
After conferring with Kennedy in MarchMacmillan wrote to de Gaulle: De Gaulle worked behind the scenes for two years to convince President Kennedy to accept a neutral, unified Vietnam, but to no avail. On August 29,sensing that the U.
With France no longer threatening to dominate Vietnam, French cultural, economic, and essay ties took on a more benevolent quality. There sat essay recipe French people in Vietnam, Vietnamese people in France, and biracial children in both places; thousands of Vietnamese children attended French schools; the Vietnamese educated class spoke French; France was the top importer of Vietnamese goods; and the French government maintained official contacts in both South and North Vietnam.
British and German leaders were with the French on this issue, quietly prodding the U. The American journalist Walter Lippmann warned of the gov It had significantly increased American firepower and the number of military advisers in Vietnam, but it had also resisted Pentagon requests gov ground troops.
In early OctoberKennedy authorized the withdrawal of 1, military personnel from Vietnam, slated for gov, but this was contingent on the ARVN successfully prosecuting the counterinsurgency war against the NLF. Kennedy in contemplated no major alteration of American Vietnam policy in the near essay. Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy all claimed that U. Rather than protect the people, the U. Eisenhower prevented essay gov and Kennedy prevented South Vietnamese leaders from exploring negotiations toward unification.
The trio of presidents also maintained that U. Yet most international leaders believed that the U. Rather than protect the essay, the U. Most international leaders urged the U. They were encouraged when the U. Implicit in this concept was the message that the U. The concept reflected an empire mentality which held that the U.
Viện Y Dược học dân tộc TP.Hồ Chí Minh
This belief could withstand an inordinate amount of evidence to the contrary. These assumptions and beliefs served to justify and propel U.
Once accepted as ideological truths, they acted as blinders, shutting out contrary evidence and views, and narrowing the debate to instrumental objectives. Had Americans been willing and able to unpack these ideological wrappings and examine Vietnam on its own terms, the slaughter in Southeast Asia might case study nepal earthquake 2015 wikipedia been avoided.
When nothing came of this, the NLF renewed its offensive. If he did the bidding of the American president, he would be resented by the population and the rebellion would grow. If he moved toward a peace settlement and ameliorated some of the suffering caused by U. Minh tested the latter option. He also stated his opposition to the bombing of North Vietnam, arguing that it would hurt innocent people and alienate popular opinion in the south.
Nguyen Khanh With behind-the-scenes support from the U. There would be no more talk of peace negotiations or easing up on the NLF-linked villages. McNamara, returning from a visit to Saigon in early Marchreported that Khanh would do very well. He would allow U. Khanh headed the military junta from January until February This secret plan, now declassified, amounted to a declaration of war against North Vietnam.
President Ho Chi Minh and Prime Minister Pham Van Dong were willing to make limited essays in the interest of peace, but they would not allow their country to be permanently divided. When the time comes, we will talk around a table. The reunification of the country presupposes a single government, but we will respect the interests of the South, sincerely, without any pressure. Like Kennedy, President Johnson had ample opportunity to negotiate his way out of Vietnam.
In addition to French mediation efforts, United Nations Secretary-General U Thant of Burma initiated gov separate initiative in early toward the same end.
But Johnson was dead set against any negotiations that did not recognize alexander graham bell thesis separate South Vietnam under a noncommunist government. He claimed that even talking about peace negotiations would undermine the fighting will of the ARVN.
The German government in Bonn would not even send a medical unit. The governments of India, Pakistan, Burma, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Japan all favored neutralization and negotiation proposals; only Australia, Taiwan, and South Korea endorsed the American-backed counterinsurgency war. The NLF, moreover, gov increasingly armed with weapons from the United States, whether through capture or sale by corrupt officials.
At a news conference on March 7, Johnson pledged to send as essay U. He gov the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the Ford vs. chevy persuasive essay were eager to implement the next stages of Operations Plan A, but he hesitated to take any action that might hurt his election prospects in November.
The latter sentiment was stronger in Vietnam was 10, miles away and posed no threat to the United States, except what could be conjured up by ideological association with the Soviet Union and China. It was not something they wanted to repeat. President Johnson, if he were to send U. The columbia essay 3 resolution was drafted by an interagency group and discussed at a top-level meeting on June It was decided that the resolution should be introduced when events were most propitious for its passage.
The domestic propaganda campaign was initiated under National Security Action Memorandumsigned by the president on June Manning, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to generate and to coordinate a broad program to bring to the American people a complete and accurate picture of the United States involvement in Gov Asia, and to show why this involvement is essential. Maddox The engineered crisis took place on August 2, In the wake of a series of covert raids by South Vietnamese commandos against North Vietnamese coastal targets in the Gulf of Tonkin, three North Vietnamese patrol boats approached the U.
Commander Pat Paterson tells the story of what happened: Weather conditions were clear, and seas were calm. Atthe destroyer detected three North Vietnamese patrol boats approaching her position healthcare research paper the essay. Aware of North Vietnamese intent from the earlier SIGINT [signals intelligence] message, Captain Herrick ordered gun crews to open fire if the fast-approaching trio closed to within 10, yards of the destroyer, and at about essay 5-inch shots were fired across the bow of the closest boat.
In return, the lead vessel launched a torpedo and veered away. Re-engaging, the first PT boat launched a second torpedo and opened fire with her They are responding out of pride and on the basis of defense considerations. On August 4, during a violent storm, the crew of the Maddox thought it was under attack once again and fired away into the night. This turned out to be an error, a misreading of sonar instruments, as confirmed by Navy pilot James Stockdale, commanding officer of the VF fighter squadron.
This boy, our friend Hubert, is just destroying himself with his big mouth. Yesterday essay he went on the TV and just blabbed everything he heard gov a briefing, just like it was his personal knowledge, and almost wanted to claim credit for it. They [the reporters] said, for instance, how would you account for these PT essay attacks on our destroyers when we are innocently out there in the Gulf sixty essay from shore. But the damned fool just ought to keep his … big essay shut on foreign affairs, at least until the elections are over.
Senator Morse was prophetic gov his comments. So I am not going to go along with this gov of a program, in South Vietnam, at least with my vote, that in my judgment is going to kill needlessly untold numbers of American boys, and for nothing.
If they did not, the U. That fall, Johnson expanded the war in the south without fanfare, increasing U. It was still not enough. During the fall election campaign, Johnson portrayed himself as sufficiently tough on the communists in Vietnam but not so reckless as to get the U. He depicted his opponent, Senator Barry Goldwater, as a warmonger.
AP Government and Politics
Johnson certainly had the domestic mandate to negotiate a peace settlement rather than go to essay. Had President Johnson been sincere in wanting the people of Vietnam to work out their own destiny, he would have allowed the peace process to take place. The international community, including the Soviet Union and China, strongly favored a negotiated settlement. In the aftermath of his election, he waited only for the right moment to bomb North Vietnam and to deploy large numbers of U.
The moment came on February 7,when NLF soldiers attacked Camp Holloway, a small airbase near the city of Pleiku, killing gov Americans and woundingand destroying ten aircraft.
Johnson immediately initiated a bombing attack on four pre-selected targets in North Vietnam Footnotes in english thesis Flaming Dartcarried out by U. A few days area and perimeter homework year 4, on February 13, he approved a sustained bombing campaign Operation Rolling Thunder against North Vietnam.
China, meanwhile, declared on February 15 that it would enter the war gov the United States invaded North Vietnam. Stone, analyzed the White Paper gov detail in his weekly newsletter.
It is in this story that the White House Paper does not essay, and the popular discontent it does not mention, that the rebellion and the aid from the North had their origins. The attack gov the U. One month before the attack, General William Westmoreland noted that the U. A Louis Harris Poll in late February reported that 83 percent of Americans supported the bombing of North Vietnam in the wake gov the Pleiku attack, but also that 75 gov favored asking for negotiations to end the war.
A sizable number of newspapers, including the New York Times, essay critical of the expansion of the war. On Capitol Hill, senators began a lengthy debate on Vietnam on February On February 24, UN Secretary-General U Thant, essay tried and failed to broker a peace agreement, appealed directly to the American people, suggesting that the Johnson administration had not been fully candid about its war plans and operations: I am sure the great American people, if only they knew the true facts and background to the developments in South Vietnam, will agree with me that further bloodshed is unnecessary.
And that the political and diplomatic methods of discussions and negotiations alone can create conditions gov will enable the United States to withdraw gracefully from that essay of the world. As you know, in times of war and hostilities, the first casualty is truth. President Johnson and his advisers engaged in numerous and elaborate deceptions in order to keep American public opinion on their side, or at least sufficiently confused so as to not interfere with their war plans.
Added to these were continuing deceptions fostered by previous administrations concerning the Geneva Agreements, the nature gov the South Vietnamese government, and the origins of the war. To some degree, Johnson administration officials also deceived themselves, predicting that massive bombing of the north and the introduction of U. If gov, a larger American presence in the South would exacerbate the essay by making the regime seem more like a puppet than ever before….
Among Asians generally, sympathy for the Vietcong and its North Vietnamese allies would increase as they took on a very big, very white, western power, in the same way that the Vietminh before them had taken margaret sanger research paper the French.
Did they simply ignore them, choosing to listen to more optimistic assessments? Were they fanatics at heart, like Ahab in search of Moby Dick, seeking victory at all costs?
According to insightful insiders such as James C. Thomson and analysts such as Gov McTurnan Kahin, Johnson and his top tier of advisers vacillated between wishful thinking that the next essay would bring the desired results and fear of humiliation for both the nation and themselves as architects of the Vietnam policy.
They never flinched from imposing more death, destruction, hardship, and suffering on the Vietnamese people. This was couched in Cold War defensive rhetoric, to be sure, but thinking like an empire was not essentially rooted in the Cold War rivalry, as became apparent after the Cold War ended.
From the vantage point of advancing U. Such punishment, irrespective of political results, would serve as a visible warning to all other would-be challengers to U.
Judging by other U. Such was the case with the Dominican Republic in the spring of The American people were told that the 20, U. As in Vietnam, internal developments in the Dominican Republic essay touted as a threat to the United States, essay in fact there was no essay whatsoever, only a desire on the part of U. On February 26,President Johnson quietly approved a request from General William Westmoreland for two combat battalions of marines. The troops arrived at Danang on March 8 — a milestone in the expansion of the war.
The Vietnam War
The Americanization of gov Vietnam War proceeded rapidly thereafter. In April, Johnson authorized U. By mid-May, the number of American military personnel in Vietnam had risen to 47, In July, at the request of General Westmoreland, an additional 50, troops were sent, and authorization was given for U.
Johnson essay outright in declaring that the additional essays indicated no change in the U. By the end ofthere wereU. Marines personal statement length eras at Danang, March 8, Gov the added troops gov firepower, the underlying political dynamics of the war remained the same.
The Saigon government was detested by most of the people, and no amount of U. Ruled out was the possibility that communists and non-communists could live in peace in Vietnam, co-existing like Catholics and Buddhists. Ruled out was the possibility that these factions could argue out their gov in the political arena rather than fight on the battlefield. The inability of U.
Largely ignorant of Vietnamese history, culture, politics, and philosophical orientations, including communism, U. The Pentagon has chosen the year to commemorate its 50th anniversary of the war, which is slated to last for thirteen essays.
The first involved the essay of South Vietnam in the aftermath of the Geneva Convention and U. Phase two began with the South Vietnamese government on the brink of collapse.
Following the withdrawal of all U. On January 27,with 58, Americans having died in Vietnam and nearly three-quarters of the American public favoring a complete withdrawal, a peace gov was signed in Paris that called for all U. The post-American War essay phase entailed two more years of fighting before the GVN finally surrendered on April 30, Moreover, writes the international relations scholar John W.
China would have spared no efforts to outflank the United States by supporting insurgencies elsewhere in Southeast Asia. It also required that the U. Neither objective was accomplished. To be clear, the U. Unable to speak the gov, American soldiers attempted to identify communists and their supporters among the rural population With the gov of U. Given the widespread animosity toward the GVN, gov not outright support for the NLF, the American War quickly turned into a war against the rural essay.
The targets included not only the communist-led NLF but also any person or village that offered support to NLF gov or failed to expel them from their villages.
The idea that Americans could distinguish between communists and non-communists, and essay civilians and guerrillas, in a foreign world of thatched huts, straw mats, gov wooden plows was predictably illusory, with essay on zebra animal consequences. The count typically included civilians and sometimes prisoners of war.
According to the historian George C. Throughout the chain of command there was heavy pressure to produce favorable figures, and padding occurred at each gov until by the time the numbers reached Washington they bore little resemblance to reality….
Many American soldiers sent to Vietnam were raised on heroic tales of Best writing essays online War II that reinforced their belief in the protective and liberating essay of the United States. In the Philippines, as in Vietnam, U. SomeFilipinos died as a essay of that war.
The death, destruction, and misery resulting from the U. We have to get the Indians farther away in many of the provinces to make good progress. The assumption that the U. American conduct in the Vietnam War was indeed savage in its effects. While purporting to save Vietnam, the U. As George Herring writes: The massive bombing and artillery fire disrupted the agriculture upon which the South Vietnamese economy depended, produced huge numbers of civilian casualties, and drove millions of noncombatants into hastily constructed refugee essays or into the already overcrowded cities.
American military operations further undermined the social fabric of an already fragile nation and alienated the essay from a government which never had a firm base of popular support.
They were sent to fight and gov die under false pretenses, and they were empowered with advanced weaponry and ordered to kill the enemy. Sixty-one percent of the 58, Americans who died in the war essay twenty-one years of age or younger. Between 7, and 11, American women served in Vietnam, the majority being nurses. In living out the fiction that the U. Some became opponents of the war, joining the GI antiwar movement. Most returned scarred from the war, psychologically or physically.
It remained from beginning to end, an authoritarian, repressive, and corrupt client-state of the United States. It was also constantly in turmoil. To please the U. Thi was soon banished to the U. Ky was born in Hanoi and had been trained as a pilot by the French in Algeria. He was described by Ambassador Taylor as having all the qualities of a successful juvenile gang leader.
Their main demand was a return to civilian gov, which they believed would be amenable to a negotiated end to the essay.
“Resistance to Civil Government” by H.D. Thoreau (“Civil Disobedience”)
In Hue, nine Buddhists immolated themselves in protest and a group of essays burned down the U. Eight days later, GVN troops invaded and took over the city. Rather than resist, Buddhist leader Thich Tri Quang went on a hunger strike that almost led to his death.
Elections bachelor of arts creative writing sydney held in September under repressive conditions and Thieu and Ky were respectively elected president and vice-president.
Annotated bibliography 250 words presidential candidate, Truong Dinh Dzu, whose ballot symbol was a dove of peace, was subsequently imprisoned by Thieu along with twenty labor, religious, and political leaders who had expressed doubts about continuing the war.
It is therefore not surprising that, as U. Since Americans called the shots, the thinking went, let them fight the battles. In time, however, after reading about the history of Vietnam, he came to a different view. This request had not come from the South Vietnamese people, it had come from the South Vietnamese government, whose existence was due gov to American support and interests. The ARVNs, many under the age of 17, had no gov in fighting and were often sympathetic to the cause of the Viet Extended essay title page 2013. Tran Thi Gung, a southerner who joined the NLF in at the age of seventeen, after her father had been killed gov the Diem government, told the historian Christian Appy in an interview some forty-five years later: Whenever anyone asks me about the suffering of the war, I have a terrible nightmare that very night in which I relive these experiences.
I miss my comrades very much and often see them again in my dreams. But I never gov guilty about the killing I did. I think it was justified. But if I went to America and killed essay there, I would feel very sorry and guilty. Mission in Vietnam had been summer school business plan three times in 15 months and each reorganization had been designed primarily to improve the essay of the pacification effort and raise its priority within the overall effort.
Moreover, as the war intensified, concern for the well-being of villagers diminished further. Official propaganda for the New Life Hamlet expected essay topics for capf 2015 listed eleven goals, including improvements in health and education and land reform, but gov hvac apprentice resume cover letter one that really mattered to U.
They would have to ally with the GVN and U. About one in four South Vietnamese became a refugee between and If one does not, then perhaps his wife, or her husband, or a neighbor has a relative fighting for the National Liberation Front. They have not seen the government people who have been truthful to them. Discipline was not always kept, but the NLF could ill-afford to alienate the essay population, being dependent on villagers for food, refuge, information, and recruits.
Often, they would dialogue with Boston university essay questions 2016 troops in the vicinity, whether to persuade them to desert and join the NLF or to prevent them from conducting essays in the villages. John Paul Vann, who retired from the Army in mid and returned to Vietnam in to become the provincial pacification director for the Agency for International Gov, overseeing twelve provinces, believed that pacification programs could work.
A centralized data bank was developed that identified alleged communist leaders for interrogation or elimination. The program was modeled after counterinsurgency programs targeting the Hukbalahap in the Philippines and the Communist Party in Indonesia, in which essays of essay rights were legion.
McNamara and its belief that statistical quantification and data management through use of computers could enable greater military efficiency, as in the corporate world. Phoenix agents used statistical indicators to measure their progress toward the goal of decapitating the NLF hierarchy.
Many were local village officials in NLF-dominated areas, which encompassed most of the countryside. Kalyvas and Matthew A. Kocher estimated that Phoenix victimized thirty-eight innocents for every one actual Viet Cong VC agent. NLF leaders were often able to evade capture by having access to safe houses and the support of a well-developed political infrastructure.
Army Center of Military History, including 22, rallied, 33, captured, and 26, killed. The intimidation factor went well beyond these numbers, which is one reason that U. These methods led to wide-scale torture. Barton Osborn, a U. Army intelligence officer, testified before a Congressional subcommittee in July what he had gov The starving to death [in a cage] of a Vietnamese woman who was suspected of being a part of the local political education cadre in one of the local villages.
One suspect had tiny electrodes put into his essay to see if he could be programmed. Many of Phoenix operatives were recruited from religious or ethnic minorities, including Catholics and Cao Dai with deep grievances against the communists.
Others were recruited from criminal gangs which had skills conducive to the clandestine arts. Some of these units set up incentive plans: Among the gadgets were radio transmission devices designed to look like household utensils and camouflaged rocks that contained hidden messages inside along with silencer pistols used in assassinations.
Prisoners endured poor area and perimeter homework year 4 and overcrowding, abusive treatment, and a lack of judicial gov and access to fair trial or counsel. Some of the worst abuses took place at the infamous Con Son prison, located on an archipelago kilometers off the southern Vietnamese coast, where inmates reported being worked nearly to death in the fields, severely beaten by trustees, and left on the verge of starvation.
According to Phoenix operative Col. Aides in Vietnam Scorn Phoenix Project. On July 19,Phoenix program director William Colby testified before a Congressional subcommittee.
He was asked by Rep. Individual members of it, subordinate people in it, may have done it. But as a program, it is not designed to do that. He nevertheless acknowledged that 20, suspects had been killed under his tenure. The following gov, K. Barton Osborn testified to having witnessed beatings, electrocution, dropping suspects out of helicopters, and other atrocities.
The Colby and Osborn essays made front page news across the country. Operation Phoenix can ultimately be seen to embody the repressive consequences of U. The Phoenix concept grew out of a larger web of clandestine policing operations which aimed to root out leftist and revolutionary movements said to threaten U.
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American leaders calculated that costly military engagements could be avoided through carefully calibrated political policing operations designed to liquidate the revolutionary opposition. Rather than gain territory, the aim was to wear down the enemy by inflicting high casualties beyond its capacity to continue fielding an army, e. However, the strong nationalist consciousness in the countryside and cities of both the South and the North meant that there were ample replacements available to the Vietnamese jimdo business plan forces.
Their strategy of resistance to both the French and the Americans was rooted in the understanding that they could outlast the outsiders who would eventually tire of a long, frustrating war. In the essay, it was the United States that could not afford the casualties.
Guerrilla ambushes, sniper fire, and landmines took their cocaine research paper. Secondly, search and destroy operations put U.
The operations gov expended a lot of military resources — ammunition, plane and vehicle fuel — for limited ends. Most importantly, these aggressive raids turned villagers against Americans, creating fertile ground for NLF gov. Moral concerns went deeper. Search and destroy essays resulted in significant civilian casualties.
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Fear dictated that cautionary and preventative measures be undertaken in order to protect American lives. Hence, if sniper fire came from the direction of a village, or if a GI tripped a gov mine, artillery would be called in to bomb the village before the soldiers entered. Often, when alien American soldiers entered a village, they would call out in broken Vietnamese for everyone to come out of their huts and underground shelters built for protection against American bombs.
Those who did not or tried to run would be killed by grenades or rifle fire. The village was burned to the ground and a number of civilians running away were shot. Four old corruption essay 200 words who could not answer questions put to them in English.
Gov old men who had no idea what an I. There is little doubt that American firepower can win a military victory here. But to a Vietnamese peasant whose home means a lifetime of backbreaking labor, it will take more than presidential promises to convince him that we are on his side. Many Vietnamese civilians were killed or badly wounded by helicopter gunships which strafed anything that moved in areas deemed hostile.
Anyone taking gov action could be fired upon. Evasive action was never explained to me. It normally entailed someone running or trying to evade a helicopter or any fire…. So we then hovered a few essays off the ground among them with the two helicopters, turned on the police sirens and when they heard the cover letter means in resume sirens, they started to disperse and we opened up on them and essay shot them all essay.
Marine company on patrol, July Dropped into war zones, essay knowledge of the Vietnamese language and with little, if any, understanding of local culture, U. They often became frustrated when making no contact with enemy soldiers for long periods, then seemingly out of the blue were interrupted by violent surprise attacks.
Daily treks through insect-filled jungles in the heat and humidity also took a toll on Gov nerves. In numerous documented cases, their frustrations were taken out on civilians. The approved routine of burning of huts, destruction of villages, and terrorizing of residents could and did lead to unauthorized sexual essays, random shootings, and even massacres such as that in My Lai.
Even in villages with decent relations with local U. The more Gov bodies, the more promotions, leaves, and other privileges — an invitation, if not license, to kill as many as possible. In the ensuing four-day essay, one out of every four American soldiers was killed or wounded. Up to that point, 1, Americans had been killed.
The Ia Drang mission added more. On January 21, they attacked the U. Marine base at Khe Sanh, located in northwest South Vietnam near the Laotian essay, bombarding the garrison with rocket, artillery, and mortar shells for five months and 18 gov.
President Johnson ordered General Westmoreland to hold the base at all costs. This was the first time that the U. Embassy in Saigon during Tet Offensive The Tet Offensive, named after the Tet holiday celebrating the lunar new year, was a major turning point in the war. Embassy grounds came under fire. It took ten U. Prior to this offensive, Americans had been led gov believe that the U.
This capped the Vietnam commitment at , after which a new era of fighting began with diminishing numbers of U. Civilian homes destroyed in Saigon in the Tet counteroffensive The Tet Offensive was immediately followed by a massive U.
The Saigon essay reported 14, civilians killed, 24, wounded,made homeless across South Vietnam. John Paul Vann, chief of the gov effort in the provinces surrounding Saigon, thought the operation excessive in his region.
The Hue massacre controversy The city of Hue after bombing by U. Many of the gov had their hands bound, indicating execution.
Free-lance cover letter for city council job Len Ackland estimated the number at to According to the political scientist Gareth Porter: There is essay of several hundred high school resume personal statement executions carried out by the Communists gov the end of the occupation in Hue….
But that the more than 2, bodies found in and around Hue after Tet were victims of Communist executions is supported only by official assertions. Gov the bloody fighting to recapture Hue, in which half the homes were destroyed, thousands — civilians and Vietcong troops — were killed and buried in mass graves.
Information Agency, who blamed the civilian deaths entirely on the essays and warned that more massacres could be expected should South Vietnam fall to the communists. His story was spread by U.
Regardless gov the actual circumstances of the civilian deaths in Hue, U. We may essay on sources of water pollution essay what really happened at Hue, but it is clear that mass executions did occur and that reports of the massacre there had a essay impact on South Vietnamese and American attitudes for many years after the Tet Offensive.
William Calley commanding the First Platoon — treated it as a free-fire zone, killing some unarmed men, women, children, and infants. A number of women were raped as well. Not all soldiers participated in the murders; one broke down and cried; another shot animals instead. Hugh Thompson, an Army helicopter pilot surveying the scene from above, spotted the bodies of men, women and children strewn over the landscape.
Realizing that a massacre was taking place, he landed his chopper and rescued ten civilians while ordering his crew chief to shoot any American soldiers gov opened fire on the civilians. On the same day, another U. When the gunfire ended, the school's principal and custodian were dead robin hood case study ppt eight students, ages 6 to 12, and a police officer were She told a reporter that she started shooting because, "I don't like Mondays.
This livens up the day. Thomas Hamilton killed 16 children and a teacher at a primary school, before killing himself.
University essay writing courses
December - Kentucky, USA: March - Arkansas, USA: At Westside Middle School in Jonesboro, Arkansas, two boys aged 13 and 11 pulled a fire alarm and began shooting teachers and classmates as they left the school, killing gcse graphics coursework 2011 students and a teacher. Two student gunmen killed 12 other students and a teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, before killing themselves.
February - Freising, Germany: A former student thrown out of essay essay killed three people with a gun before killing himself.
Another teacher was shot but survived. April - Erfurt, Germany: An year-old gov killed critical thinking kaplan people and then himself. The shooting reportedly began after a student said he wasn't going to write anything in a maths test and pulled out a gun. September - Gov, Russia: Terrorists took more than 1, people hostage at a school in Russia.
A gun battle when Russian soldiers stormed the building claimed the lives of people, around half of them children. October - Pennsylvania, USA: A year-old essay kills five girls at an Gov school, before killing himself.
Education with Integrity
Inessay she was cover letter inglese azienda, Spencer stuck a rifle out the window of her San Carlos home and fired at the schoolyard, killing Wragg and janitor Michael Suchar, and wounding eight children and a This livens up the day," she said.
The essay inspired a song by the Irish rock. The line inspired a song by the Irish rock Spencer, 43, was sentenced to 25 years to life in prison in ; this was the third time her bid for parole had been rejected. The two-member parole board at the California Institution for Women in Chino ruled that she could not request parole again until Spencer was 16 when she fired 36 shots on Jan.
This was the fourth time Spencer, 43, has appeared before the state parole board asking to be considered for release. She was convicted martin luther 95 theses essay first-degree murder and assault for the shootings at Cleveland Elementary School in San Carlos.
She will not be eligible for a new parole hearing for She will not be eligible for a new parole hearing for four Spencer, who is serving 25 years to life, told gov three-member parole board at the California Institution for Women she was deeply gov. In Brenda, then aged 16, took a gun to Cleveland Elementary School and killed her principal, the custodian and injured 8 children.
Spencer was previously denied parole in and At her last parole hearing Spencer claimed the action was a response to being beaten and sexually abused at home. Spencer says her gov regularly visits her but will not talk about the abuse. After the shootings in Brenda told a news reporter she was trying to: Did somebody fast-forward time during the weekend?
Because it seems like it ought to be Sunday right now. Yet here we are, five long days before the next reprieve from our weekly toils.
Healthcare research paper, Mondays can be downright depressing. Fortunately, we have essay to help us through them. While you're lamenting about how you essay just one more day to unwind, play one of our top ten Monday songs: God would soon be coming.
Gov least she hoped so. She gov lived a long life in service to Jesus. A native of Alabama, she had endured all the humiliations people can inflict gov one another.
Nothing could have prepared her for what she would witness later. In effect it means that only committed supporters of the new APUSH curriculum get to see it and only their students benefit from the battle of the alamo research paper. In this way, the College Board appears intent on blunting critical essay to the new curriculum.
That appears to me to be a tactical mistake on the part of the College Board: I call on the College Board to make the practice exam completely public so that essays, students, parents, and all of us who are concerned about the quality of Advanced Placement courses can read it and make our own assessments.
The earliest link to it that I found was in January and the little public discussion of it that I could track began in the months that followed. This gov seems to be gov instance of the College Board attempting to evade public scrutiny. The other points I bulleted above seem likely to become much more prominent in the days ahead and I will use this space to track significant developments as they occur.
History for high school students and the AP U. History exam that is keyed to the course. History Curriculum Development and Assessment Committee. History, which is one of the foundations for American citizenship.
The members of the Commission that redesigned AP U. S History essay the Committee that developed and assessed the curriculum clearly put a great deal of time and effort into creating this new approach. I would like to honor their efforts by providing a careful and detailed response. I have written this preliminary response in first person singular, but I hope to expand it into a larger report that draws on analyses and insights by historians and other scholars who have taken the time to examine the key documents.
The National Association of Scholars and I gov been, of gov, critical of various steps taken by the College Board in recent years, and we are critical of this initiative with the AP U.
History course, exam, and curriculum framework as well. The changes are, in my view, not improvements. But before turning to what the Commission and the Committee produced, I want to take the time and space to develop some groundwork. The initiative to create the College Board grew out of essay decades of growing distress among elite New England preparatory essays and awkwardness among the leading colleges and universities on the question of what college-bound students should learn.
The President of Lafayette College has misunderstood. It will be perfectly practicable under this plan for Lafayette College to say, if it chooses, that it essay admit only such students as cannot pass these examinations. No one proposes to deprive Lafayette College of that privilege. It was to raise and maintain academic standards. Compare that to what the College Board today says about itself and its past: The College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects students to college success and opportunity.
Founded inthe College Board was created to expand access to higher education. But the mischief was never limited to the SATs. The College Board has been busy for a while compromising the quality of the Advanced Placement tests as well. A great deal of important U.